Indigenous Framework

Indigenous Framework: A Framework for Innovative Education

Spiritual knowledge cannot be observed by physical means; therefore, it cannot be measured or quantified. Thus, indigenous and spiritual ways of knowing are often dismissed by scientific researchers. The relational nature of Indigenous epistemology acknowledges the interconnections of the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual aspects within all living things, the earth, and the universe. Indigenous epistemology is fluid, nonlinear, and relational (Kovach, 2005). Many indigenous ways of knowing accept both the physical and the nonphysical realms as reality and are considered equally valid and interconnected. In accepting the nonphysical, one must accept that reality cannot always be quantified. Therefore, the means of acquiring non-physical knowledge stems not only from the understanding and investigation of the self, but from the exploration and study of creative work, social environments, emotional awareness, cultural practices, historical causes and effects, personal and societal goals, and subsequently, the interconnection of all things.

“It is important to stress that this philosophy of education is not anti-Western, anti-science or anti-technology … Instead, the two ways of knowing are more typically viewed as complementary. The goal is to combine both worldviews, in the right proportions, in order to create something that is both academically rigorous and relevant” (p. x, Boyer).



Human beings are not empty containers or machines into which information can just be downloaded in one direction. Practical skills and abilities only develop when learning is interactive, creative and dynamic. Knowledge has to be applied directly and used creatively in meaningful situations.” (Chase, 2014)


“First of all, educational innovations can improve learning outcomes and the quality of education provision. For example, changes in the educational system or in teaching methods can help customize the educational process.”

“Finally, education should remain relevant in the face of rapid changes to society and the national economy” (Barrett, 1998: 288). T

Innovation defined as “the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service) or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organization or external relations” (OECD/Eurostat, 2005).

“Humans need to encounter and learn to value multiple perspectives in all areas of their lives. A critical multilogicality values indigenous knowledge because indigenous knowledge has transformative power” (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008)

“In fact, creativity — which I define as the process of having original ideas that have value — more often than not comes about through the interaction of different disciplinary ways of seeing things…” (Robinson, 2010)

Richard Lachman (2016) states, “we should treat required arts and humanities courses not as some vague attempt to ‘broaden minds’ but rather as a necessary discussion of morals, values, ethics, and responsibility.”

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